The development and application of numerical control technology make machining transition from simple batch processing to more high-end technical requirements.
CNC machine tool is an efficient automatic machine tool with good economic performance and production benefits. CNC machine tool is an important development trend in the world machine tool manufacturing industry and machining. The maintenance of machine tools can avoid machine tool failures, ensure that CNC machine tools are in good working condition, ensure the smooth progress of machining work, avoid production delays caused by mechanical failures, improve the processing efficiency of machine tools, and prolong the service life of CNC machine tools.
Advantages of CNC Machine Tools
1. Strong Adaptability
It is suitable for the production of single-piece products such as molds and is suitable for the production of single-piece to small-batch products and the development of new products.
2. High Machining Accuracy
The machining accuracy of CNC machine tools can generally reach 0.05-0.1mm. The CNC machine tool is controlled in the form of digital signals. Each time the CNC device outputs a pulse signal, the moving parts of the machine tool move a pulse equivalent (usually 0.001mm).
3. Through the linkage of multiple coordinates, parts with complex shapes can be processed.
4. High Processing Efficiency
When the parts to be processed are changed, generally, only the program needs to be changed, which can save processing time.
The rapid movement and positioning of moving parts of CNC machine tools and high-speed cutting can improve production efficiency. If used in conjunction with the tool magazine of the machining center, it can carry out continuous processing of multiple processes on one machine tool, which improves the processing efficiency.
5. Reduce Labor Intensity
CNC machine tools have a high degree of automation. After entering the program and starting, the machine tool can automatically and continuously process according to the program. The operator only needs to input and edit programs, load and unload parts, and inspect parts, which greatly reduces labor intensity.
6. Stable Processing Quality
Under the same processing conditions, on the same machine tool, using the same processing program and tool, the tool trajectory is exactly the same, the quality of the parts is stable and the consistency is good.
7. Conducive to the Modernization of Production Management
CNC machine tools process and transmit information using digital information and standard codes. The tools and fixtures used can be standardized, the processing time can be accurately estimated in advance, and the standardization of processing information can be easily realized.
The Service Life of CNC Machine Tools
The entire electrical control system hardware of CNC machine tools is composed of tens of thousands of electronic components, and the performance and life of these electronic components have great discreteness.
The service life of CNC machine tools can be divided into 3 stages:
- Run-in Stage
There are many failures in 0-1 years because the CNC machine tools are generally still in a running-in stage within a year.
- Useful Life Stage
Through good daily maintenance and rational use of CNC machine tools, the machine tool can operate normally for at least five years.
- Lifespan Aging Stage
The service life of CNC machine tools is generally the service life of CNC. After 8 years of general use, the electrical hardware failures of the CNC system will gradually increase. The service life of the CNC system is about 8 to 10 years on average. By strengthening daily maintenance, the failure rate can be effectively reduced and the service life of CNC machine tools can be maximized.
Precautions for the Use of CNC Machine Tools
1. It is necessary to comply with the requirements for the use conditions of CNC machine tools in the machine tool installation and the user guide provided by the machine tool manufacturer, such as the ambient temperature, humidity, altitude, and power supply indicators for CNC machine tool’s operation.
(1) The ambient temperature is generally between 0-40 degrees.
(2) For CNC machine tools, it is best to place them in a constant temperature environment and away from equipment with large vibrations (such as punches) and equipment with electromagnetic interference.
(3) When the CNC machine tool works at a high temperature, especially in a high humidity environment, the number of machine power failures should be reduced.
(4) When the CNC machine tool is working, the highest altitude is generally lower than 1000M.
(5) The CNC machine tool should have a regulated power supply.
(6) The electrical cabinet of each station of the CNC machine tool should be equipped with independent grounding protection.
2. Prevent dust from entering the numerical control device, because floating dust and metal powder can easily cause the insulation resistance between components to drop, resulting in failure or even damage to components.
3. The ventilation system of the CNC cabinet needs to be cleaned regularly.
4. Replace the battery of the memory regularly.
5. Pay attention to equipping and training professional programmers, operators, and maintenance personnel, because CNC machine tools are very professional and technical. CNC machine tools require specialized technical personnel to operate in the actual operation process, and professional maintenance personnel is also required to perform maintenance in the maintenance process. Unprofessional behaviors should be avoided to adversely affect the functions of CNC machine tools.
6. The door of the electric cabinet can only be opened when the power supply is cut off, and it is not allowed to unplug or insert the connectors or joints of the machine tool with electricity.
7. Attention should be paid to the protection of parameters, and the parameters of CNC machine tools should not be arbitrarily modified during the maintenance process. After modifying the parameters, during the first processing, the machine tool should be tested with a single block without installing tools and workpieces, and then use the machine tool after confirming that the machine tool is normal.
8. The PLC program of the machine tool is designed by the machine tool manufacturer according to the needs of the machine tool and does not need to be modified. Improper modifications may cause damage to the machine or even harm the operator.
9. The continuous operation time of the machine tool should not exceed 24 hours, otherwise, it may cause damage to the electrical system and various components, affecting the accuracy and life of the machine tool.
10. The operating procedures and daily maintenance system should be strictly followed, and daily and regular maintenance of CNC machine tools should be carried out.
11. CNC machine tools should not be stored for a long time, as long-term storage may lead to storage system failure and data loss. If the CNC system is not used for a long time, the CNC system should be powered on frequently.
Maintenance of CNC Machine Tools
The daily maintenance of CNC machine tools is conducive to the stable and reliable operation of CNC machine tools and is an important means to prolong the service life of CNC machine tools.
Daily Maintenance of CNC Machine Tools
Routine inspection of the machine tool is required before using the machine tool for machine parts. For example, whether the coolant and lubricating oil of the machine tool are sufficient, whether the spindle hole is rusted, etc., and in areas with high humidity, it is necessary to check whether there is any dew phenomenon.
After using the machine, it needs to be cleaned carefully. Wipe off the cutting fluid on the table and guide rails and apply anti-rust oil.
Regular Maintenance of CNC Machine Tool
Through the maintenance information of the CNC system, or through special debugging software tools, the CNC machine tools are regularly maintained.
- Check whether the grounding resistance of the protective grounding of the CNC machine tool is within the specified index.
- Check the tool coolant and add or replace the coolant according to the situation.
- When the CNC machine tool adopts a high-speed spindle, it is equipped with a spindle cooling system. It is necessary to check the cooling effect of the spindle to decide whether to add refrigerant.
- Check whether the filter of the hydraulic system and the filter of the pneumatic system need to be cleaned or replaced.
- Check whether the conveyor belt of the lathe spindle is worn.
Good maintenance of the machine tool can ensure the normal and stable operation of the CNC system and prolong the service life of the machine tool.
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